What is Max phase material?

What does the MAX phase contain? It contains a layer of hexagonal carbide/nitride, with a general formula of M AX N. (MAX), Where n=1 to 3 and An means an element from the group A, mostly IIIA or IVA (groups 13-14), and X is carbon and/or nitrogen. This hierarchical structure consists of XM six octahedrons that have shared edges or twisted ends. An element from group A makes up a single layer in a plane.

How are Max phases made?

Ternary MAX Phases Compounds and Composites can be made by a number of different methods.

What advantages does Max phase material offer?

Material made with max phase has unique combination of chemical, electrical and mechanical properties. These materials also possess metallic and ceramic properties that can be used in a variety of environments. These include high electrical conductivity and thermal shock resistance, and tolerance to damage. The coefficients of thermal expansion are low and the elastic stiffness is high. Some MAX phases resist chemical eroding (Ti3SiC2) or high temperature oxygenation of the air (Ti2AlC C2AlC and Ti3AlC2) along with chemical and thermal erode. These phases are used for technology that has efficient engines, high temperatures oxidation and fatigue resistance. They could also relate to chemical bonding, and the electronic architecture of the MAX Phase. This can be described by periodic changes in the electron density of regions. The development of new nano-laminates can be made on the basis of electronic structural similarities such as Mo2BC or PdFe3N.

Electric equipment

MAX phases are both electrically and termically conductive due to their metal-like appearance. In terms of electrical and thermal conductivity, MAX phases are more efficient that Ti. The electronic structure is also responsible for this.


MAX Phases are extremely difficult but still can be machined just like any other metals. Some can be easily machined with hacksaws and some may need a little more skill. Because of their electrical conductivity, you can polish them to get a metallic look. They are extremely resistant to heat shock and corrosion. Both Cr2AlC and Ti2AlC can resist corrosion. The anisotropic electronic arrangement of Ti3SiC2 renders polycrystalline Ti3SiC2’s thermoelectric power null.


MAX communication grade B is generally hardy, flexible, and lightweight at high temperatures. This compound’s atomic structure is layered and allows for strength, fatigue, creep and other extreme conditions. The unique deformations of these compounds include basal-slip, which has recently been reported to show that the MAX phases are deformed at high temperatures. It can be compressed several times at room temperature with a stress limit of 1 GPa, according to mechanical testing. Once the load is removed, it will completely recover and dissipate 25% energy. To identify kink-nonlinear substances, one can examine the MAX phase’s unique mechanical characteristics. This microscopically important mechanism is known as the initial kinkband. The IKB is not easily demonstrated so we can speculate about possible mechanisms. Recent research suggests that highly anisotropic microstructure layers may be responsible for the reversible hypertrophy in cyclic MAX Polycrystal.

Why does Max get used?

Refractories that can withstand thermal shock or machinable heat.

High temperature heating element

Electro-contact coating

Nuclear applications require components that can resist neutron radiation

Carbide derived Carbon Synthesis: Precursors

MXenes (precursor to MXenes synthesization) is a two-dimensional form of transition metal carbide/nitride.

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