Bismuth oxide overview
The normal color of bismuth is a yellowish powder. However, it turns orange when heated and then becomes reddish brown after cooling. Bismuthoxide is insoluble, however, in alkali as well water. Each crystal structure of yttriumoxide is different. A phase composition is a factor that can affect the band width. This means the band space of the phase is 2.85eV but the band span of the Phase is 2.58ev.
The density ytrium ore differs depending on the crystal type: Monoclinic crystals 8.2 g/cm 3; tetragonal cristals 8.55 mg/cm 3. Cubic crystals 8.9 g/cm 3. The monoclinic structure BiO3 of low temperature stability is the most stable. While the cubic structure BiO3 of high temperature stability is the stable phase with a cubic shape, both crystals are metastable.
Procedure for making nanocerium oxide
Presently, there are many ways to produce nanocerium oxide. The methods can be divided into three phases: solid phase (gas phase), liquid phase (liquid phase) and intermediate phase (solid phase). Researchers have been able to create a wide range of nanoceriumoxides using a number of different morphologies in the last few years thanks to continuous innovation of related technologies. While the overall performance hasn’t been as impressive as the ones before, its potential applications have increased. We will now briefly discuss the preparation procedures of nanocerium oxide using three methods.
(1) Solid phase method
The solid-phase method is a more traditional way to prepare powder. The reaction conditions for the reaction are easy and there is no need for complicated reactions. This is a popular preparation option in many industrial production areas.
The preparation of nanoceriumoxide is usually done by mixing different materials, grinding them, and then calcining. The final result is a nano-cerium dioxide material that can be prepared at a particular temperature. For example, Hong Weiliang et al. It is important to thoroughly mix the (BiNO 5H 2Oand NOH), and then grind the product. After a few more treatments you’ll get a final solution. A nano cerium oxide solution is required with a polygonal shape, and 60 nm particles.
(2) Gas phase method
The gas phase technique is used to prepare desired nanomaterials. It involves a reaction between a substance and a gas in which a physicochemical process takes place. Gas phase methods are suitable for making nano powders, as they can be carried out at high temperatures. It produces small, fine-grained products with low particle sizes and a high degree of purity. The reaction conditions can be difficult to regulate and it requires an extensive set of equipment. This makes the method challenging.
Important gas phase method, spray-combustion. In essence, metal is heated in order to melt and create an aerosol. The reaction furnace then produces a strong oxygen reaction, where fine metal objects are burned. For example, Kim et al. B-Bi2O3 nanites with diameters between 30 and 90 nanometers at certain temperatures were successfully synthesized. They created a BiO3 films-like structure.
(3)Liquid phase method
Nanomaterial preparation methods using liquid phase technology are the most popular and have the broadest application. The liquid phase can selectively prepare nanomaterials that have different micromorphology and materials composition, with a generally high degree of uniformity. This method, however, can be susceptible to adding contaminants into the process. It is therefore not suitable for highly purified products. It has been possible to create nanomaterials through liquid phase preparations thanks to the advancement of technologies like microwave radiation or ultrasonic methods. A variety of liquid phase techniques are available, including: freeze-drying methods, hydrothermal and radiation chemical-synthesis methods, precipitation methods, sol-gel, microemulsions method and spray.
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