How to prepare MAX phase ceramic materials?

Procedures to prepare MAX Phase Materials
MAX phases materials can have many preparation techniques. You can choose from different synthesis steps depending on the final morphology. MAX Phase materials can be described as massive, finely powdery or thin film.
Production of MAX-phase bulk materials
Chemical vapour coating (CVD), is the first method of preparing bulk MAX phase materials. CVD technology involves higher synthesis temperatures, lower production costs, and lower productivity. Hot isostatic sintering technology emerged later. Pampuch et al. The bulk Ti3SiC22 was made by hot isostatic pressing, sintering. Although the manufacturing process takes less time, there is still a lot of impurities. Until 1996, Barsoum et al. High purity Ti3SiC2 has been prepared by hot pressing. Spark plasma sintering, which is a method of increasing production efficiency, has again been developed. Even though sintering works similarly to hot-pressing, the requirement of raw materials for this process has decreased.

The industrial scale production of pressureless sintering works better than traditional methods. Before pressureless sintering, the initial pressureless sintering process is typically performed by pretreatment using mechanical alloying. But this technique is not without its impurities. Sun et. Al was added by pressureless-sintering which increased the material’s density.
The preparation of MAX powder phase materials
Powdered MAX materials were prepared using oxidation. After more research, the solid liquid reaction method was found to be more efficient.

A oxidation process is the first method to prepare powdery MAX material. After more research, it was found that the solid liquid reaction method is better.

Racault et al. Racault and al. This solid phase reaction produced Ti3SiC2,TiSi2and TIC. TiSi2 impurities can be removed by HF gases after the mixture is prepared. TiSi2 can then be oxidized for 10h in air at 45°C. The concentrated sulfuric acid removes the TiO formed from the reaction and gives the MAX powder which is pure up to 95%.
Yang et al. These factors had an impact on how MAX phases were prepared by controlling the powder ratios, temperature and holding times. To obtain MAX phases powders that are more pure than 99wt% the ratio of Si powder, Ti powder and TiC must be at least 1.10 (1.15) : 2. Vacuum insulation of 2 hours at 1250°C1300C. In addition, Yang et al. For high-purity MAX Phase materials of very high purity, C and Si powder were replaced with polycarbosilane.
Preparation for thin film MAX Phase materials
By chemical vapor dipping, the MAX phase material was first made film-like. Nicki I made thin Ti Sic2 Sic2 films with CVD in 1972. No single phase of the film was created. It was discovered that thin film MAX can be prepared using physical vapour deposition. Using magnetron sputtering technology, Palmquist et al. Ti Sic2 thin films could be prepared by using magnetron sputtering technology. This was achieved at 900 C with three-source copulator co-sputtering. You can use the high speed oxidation jet as well as the cathode-pulse arc to prepare this material.
Results show that materials can not be prepared when the temperature drops below 473K. A low-temperature, nano-film is still possible, provided the temperatures are not below 473K. Material has excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistance, as well as strong conductivity.
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