Graphene-The magic materials in the world.

In 2004, a novel material that had singular properties was discovered. It is a 2-dimensional hexagonal lattice made up carbon atoms. Graphene’s unique electronic band structure as well as relativistic electronics make it the ideal system for two-dimensional electronic communication.

Graphene – A new carbon material with a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice construction, in which single carbon atoms are tightly packed. It can also be used as a base unit to build other dimensional material. Graphene consists of hexagonal honeycombs made with sp2hybridized atoms. Each layer is only one. Graphene may appear to be a flat two-dimensional structure. But graphene actually has wavy structures. Each carbon-atom in graphene can be connected to its three surroundings by a single bond. So graphene can conduct electric power, the rest of electron can travel freely. One could say that all graphene sheets make a large, x bond.
1) Tripping tape/slight friction
Micromechanical Separation is the most commonly used method. This separates graphene sheet directly from larger crystals. Other methods of preparation include friction with pyrolytic graphite. This is when the material has been expanded using another substance or introduced defects. The top of bulk graphite forms floating crystals. These contain single layers graphene.

2) Epitaxy Growth Silicon Carbide Surface
To remove silicon, heat single crystal silicon caride and make graphene layers on that surface. Following oxygen or hydrogen etching at high vacuum and electron bombardment, heat is applied to the sample to eliminate oxides. Auger electronscopy (AES), was used in order to verify that no oxide remained on the surface. It was heated to 1450-1450. Then, it was maintained at the same temperature for between 1 and 20 minutes. Thus formed a very thin graphite coating.
3) Hydrazine reduction method
Placing graphene ore in pure hydrozine is an acidic solution that contains both nitrogen and hydrogen. This reduces the graphene to monolayer graphene.

4) Sodium ethoxide pyrolysis
Nano-metal is used to first reduce ethanol. Once the product has been cracked, it is washed with water and then sodium salt is extracted. This will result in graphene sticking to the substrate. By vibration dispersion, graphene can be made in kilogram quantities using mild acoustic energy.

5) Carbon Nanotubes to Cut
For graphene ribbons, cutting carbon nanotubes in solution with potassium permanganate is an alternative method. The first method involves cutting multi-walled carbon tube in solution with potassium Permanganate. Another technique is plasma etching, which partially embeds nanotubes inside polymers.
Property of grapheme
It is thinnest and most stable material.

This is because graphene’s carbon atoms are extremely flexible. External mechanical forces bend the surfaces of carbon-atoms. However, this does not mean that they need to change their arrangement to accommodate external forces.
It is because of its stable lattice structure that carbon atoms are very conductive. In graphene, electrons move in orbit. They do not scatter from defects in the lattice or foreign atoms. Although the interatomic forces are strong at roomtemperature, they do not interfere with surrounding carbon-atoms. This unique property gives graphene an advantage in the development of transparent and conductive thin films. They are crucial in the areas of solar cells and liquid crystal display. The graphene also has attractive potential applications in high sensitivity sensors, high-performance energy storage and other devices.

The great characteristic of graphene, however is the 1/300 speed of electrons within graphene. This is much faster that that of electrons found in general conductors. This is why graphene has electrons that are called “loaders” and very much like relativistic neutrinos. Even though graphene is only as opaque as its single-layer thickness, it absorbs approximately 2.3 times more.
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