Boron carbide is widely utilized due to its exceptional properties. Boron nitride is the hardest material, second only to cubic and diamond boron. The many benefits of Boron carbide include a low melting point, low strength, high density, strong neutron absorption, and excellent mechanical stability. This material can be used for national defense, nuclear power, aerospace, wear-resistant technologies, and nuclear energy.
The industrial production of Boron carbide currently relies on the carbothermal reaction. The method of boron carbonide production can also be used. These include direct synthesis (sol-gel), mechanochemical methods, thermal propagation, direct, indirect synthesis, and mechanochemical methods.
1. Carbothermal decrease
In order to achieve high temperature reductions in electric arc furnaces, carbothermal reduction usually involves boric acid (or boric anhydride) as a raw material. This method has been the predominant method of industrial production for boron, and it is very cost-effective.
Boric black and carbon noir were used to make the raw materials. These temperatures were maintained for between 1700-1850 and 0.5-1.0 H. Borosilicate and carbon carbide powders with very high purity were calcined. Close to the theoretical level, the carbon content reached 20.7%. These are the drawbacks: the process requires high temperatures and consumes large amounts of energy.
2. A self-propagating method for thermal reduction
This self-propagating thermal reduced method utilizes carbon black (or Coke), and boric acids (or Boric Anhydride) for raw materials. It also uses active metal substance (usually mg) to reduce or flux the metal, as well as heat produced by the self-propagating combusting reaction of metal substance. You can use the following reaction equation to synthesize boron carbide: 6mg plus C +2b2o3 = 6.mgo + C4C
This technique has numerous advantages including low initial reactions temperature (1000-1200 ), quick reaction, easy to use equipment and energy conservation. B4C powder, synthesized by a process called “Synthesis”, is of high purity. The particle size ranges from 0.01 to 4.0 m. It generally doesn’t require any crushing.
Jiang et. al. utilized Na2B4O7/Mg, C, and B as raw materials. B4C powder at a particle size 0.66 m has been prepared through self-propagating heating reduction. MgO emitted by the reaction is difficult to remove.
The mechanochemical procedure uses graphite and boron dioxide powders as raw materials. The rotation or vibration of a ball mill makes the material harder. Once the medium impact is achieved, they grind the materials and stir them vigorously. At a temperature that is slightly warmer than room temperature, the chemical reaction to make boron carbide powder. This is a promising way to make boron carbide powder.
Deng et al. B4C powder containing B2O3 was prepared according to the mechanochemical technique. It had a C:Mg mass of 10.1:11. The powder particle size was between 100-200nm. Yogurt, et.al. stated that the optimal Mg/C weight ratio was 9:2 – 10:1. MgO (a by-product) is hard to remove and often takes too long for ball milling.
4. Direct Synthesis
Prepare direct boron cadmium by thoroughly mixing the boron dust and carbon powder, and then reacting with an inert atmosphere or vacuum between 1700-2100. You can be sure of high purity in boron-carbidide obtained by direct synthesis. Also, the B /C ratios are easy to monitor. Though the preparation of boron carbide for synthesis remains complex and expensive, it can still be done. There are limitations to this process.
5. Sol-gel method
Sol-gel or Sol-gel refers the procedure of solidifying organic and/or metal alkoxides via the solution, sol, then gel process. Finally, the compounds can be heated-treated for stability. This method offers advantages such as a more consistent mixture of raw materials, a lower reaction temperature and bulky products.
Sinha et al. In the pH=2-3, 84-122 conditions, mix the boric and citric acids. The result is a transparent and stable gel of gold. A vacuum furnace can heat the precursor to porous softbrate citric. After the precursor has been kept in vacuum for about 1000-1450 hours at 2h, it can be extracted as a B4C-powder with a particle size approximately 2.25M.
Luoyang Tongrun researchers studied the affect of temperature, reaction timing, and different material ratios on the B4C content in boric acid citric alg gel reaction systems. With the initial mass rates of boric acid citric acid at 2.2 to 1, the result was 2.38 percent. The reaction temperature of 1500 3.5H produced a product with 2.38% of the total free carbon. However, this production method doesn’t have a high efficiency, so it can be difficult to find large-scale uses.
Because of the advances in science and technology today, boron carbide plays an increasingly important role in both industry and personal life. It is therefore essential that boron crate production be a key determinant in future development.
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