There are many applications for nanomaterials/nanoparticles.
The key to obtaining these sizes-dependent properties is the definition of production and reaction conditions. Temperature, pH and concentration are all factors that can influence particle size, chemical makeup, crystallinity, shape, and other characteristics.
You can produce nanoparticles using one of two methods: top-down or bottom-up.
Top-Down/mechanical-physical production processes
Top-down means that mechanical-physical particle production processes are built on the principles of microsystem technologie.
One method of mechanical production is to use milling to grind microparticles.
Milling causes thermal stress and can result in energy consumption.
As compared to other chemophysical production methods, mills are able to produce particle powders of varying sizes.
Gas phase processes(aerosol processes)
These are the most industrially-utilized technologies to produce nanomaterials as powders or films in gas phase.
It is possible to create nanoparticles by vaporizing the product material.
– The formation of nanoparticles is achieved in flame-reacters. This involves the combustion of source molecules under flames at elevated temperatures of approximately 1200 to 2200°C.
Plasma (ionized Gas) is used for energy in plasma reactors.
Laser reactors: The lasers decompose gaseous materials using the absorption wavelength of the lasers.
– Hot wall reactors contain vaporization, condensation and inert gases under low pressures (ca. 1 mbar). It removes any trace of the source material from the hot zones.
The chemical gas-phase deposition (CGP) is used to deposit the nanoparticles directly on surfaces.
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